SO 444 Reviews for Tests

Test 1

definitions of deviance

positivist theory and constructionist theory, differences between the two perspectives

Positivist theories:  strain-anomie, Merton's conformity vs. innovation, status frustration, differential opportunity (including criminal, conflict and retreatist), differential association (frequency, duration, priority, intensity), differential reinforcement, social control, deterrence

Constructionist:  labeling (primary and secondary deviance, progression from primary to secondary), phenomenological (ethnography), conflict (primary and secondary culture conflict), power, Marxian

reintegrative shaming, social capital

homicide:  when they occur, where (region, rural v. urban) racial patterns, gender patterns, rich vs. poor, death penalty, stranger v acquaintance

genocide, terrorism 

patterns of rape:  acquaintance v stranger, premeditated nature, reactions of victims, legal reforms, culture of rape, characteristics of child molesters, prison rape, pedophilia in the priesthood

Essay questions

  1.  Discuss the difference between deviant behavior and crime.
  2. Compare and contrast strain and deterrence theory.  What does each say about the causes of deviance?
  3. Assess the strengths and weaknesses of conflict theory in explaining deviance.
  4. Discuss some of the reasons why the U.S. has a high homicide rate.  What factors seem to account for this high rate, especially in comparison to other cultures?
  5. What is meant by the culture of rape?  How does this work and what are the consequences?

Test 2


1.      1.   Why is family violence more prevalent among people of lower income strata?  Discuss the variables that contribute to family violence among people in this income group.

2.      2.   Choose and discuss several social factors that seem to increase suicide rates.  What are these factors, and why do they seem to increase the rate of suicide?

3.       3.  Discuss mental disorders from the perspectives of biological factors, social stress, and the myth of mental disorder.

4.       4.  Discuss the arguments for allowing and banning prostitution and pornography.

5.       5.  Compare and contrast biological and sociological theories of homosexuality.  What does each theory indicate, and how do the explanations differ? 

to  Topics for multiple choice

      extent of family violence

      causes of rape, reactions of victims

      risk factors for child abuse (physical and sexual), reactions of victims

     risk factors for elder abuse

     sandwich generation

     how society has tried to protect women from rape

     number of suicides in the U.S. annually, reliability

     feelings associated with suicide

     religion and suicide, martial status, age, economic conditions, educational status

     characteristics of suicide bombers

     prison suicide

     Durkheim's concept of social integration and social regulation

     classification of mental disorders

     social and cultural factors

     legal issues and mental illness

     social stress, labeling and mental illness

     teen sex, conservative view of sex education in school

     adultery, prevalence and reasons

     types of callers to phone sex lines

     sexual harassment, legal definition, lawsuits

     types of prostitutes, reasons for entering prostitution

     reasons for growth of human trafficking

     % of men who have ever engaged in homosexual behavior

    impact of AIDS

     APA diagnosis

     stages of acquiring a gay identity

b   explanations of homosexuality

     trades, transvestites, cross-dressing, transsexuals

T   Test 3


     1.  Discuss the difference between legal and illegal drugs.  why do some drugs that are harmful remain legal while others that are less harmful become illegal?

     2.  Evaluate some of the strategies used to control alcohol abuse.  What are some approaches, and how have they worked?

     3.  Why do white collar criminals receive lighter sentences compared to street criminals, even though the effects of white collar crime can be greater?  Discuss

     4,  Why is Italian organized crime in America more powerful than that of African and Asian Americans?

     5.  Discuss reasons for the rapid spread of cyberdeviance.  What has led to such a dramatic increase in pornography, cyberstalking and cyberhate?  What can be done, if anything, about these forms of deviance?

      Topics for multiple choice

      categories of drugs and their effects, social factors affecting illegal drug use

     debate about legalization of drugs

     % of Americans who are alcoholic

     cultural differences in alcoholism, regional differences in the US

     stages of alcoholism

     legal attempts to control drinking

    types of white collar deviance

     characteristics of white collar criminals

     reasons for various white collar deviance

     types of official deviance

     ritual of wiggle

     common patterns in robbery, burglary, auto theft, car jacking, shoplifting

     stages of the development of organized crime, characteristics of organized crime

     types of cyberdeviance

     internet gambling

N  Net Nanny

     Poverty Law Center

     online affairs

     characteristics of hackers